Szerző Téma: Tudatos álmodás és buddhizmus  (Megtekintve 8964 alkalommal)

A Nikk

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Tudatos álmodás és buddhizmus
« Dátum: 2010. Július 28. - 15:02:10 »
A tudatos álmodás népszerűsége a nyugati világban elsősorban Stephen LaBerge és Paul Tholey tudományos és írói munkásságának köszönhető. Stephen Laberge 1980-ban laboratóriumi körülmények között dokumentálta a jelenséget, kutatási eredményeit közzétette, s ezzel elérte, hogy a korábban parapszichológia és okkultizmus körébe száműzött jelenséget némileg komolyabban vegye a pszichológus társadalom.

A téma természetesen nagy népszerűségnek örvend az ezo írók körében is, közismertek Carlos Castaneda könyvei.

A buddhizmussal a kapcsolatot a tibeti álomjóga képezi, erről magyar nyelven megjelent publikációk:
Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche: Az álomés alvás tibeti jógája
Csögyal Namkhai Norbu: Álomjóga és a természetes fény gyakorlata


egy rövid írás Tarab Tulku-tól angolul:
http://www.spiritwatch.ca/abuddhis.htm


Tholey könyve magyar nyelven:
Prof. Dr. Paul Tholey, Kaleb Utecht: Alkotó álom


A Nikk

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Re:Tudatos álmodás és buddhizmus
« Válasz #1 Dátum: 2010. Július 28. - 15:38:18 »
  Gondolatébresztőül, egy idézet Tholey könyvéből, ahol a saját szemszögéből bizonyos buddhista vonatkozásokat is említ és vet össze a gestalt pszichológia szempontjaival:

Idézet
A  tizedik, s egyben az utolsó szabály: Afens  sana in corpore sano (Mentsétek meg lelkeinket!) Próbáljon meg tudatos álmában a  lelki-szellemi kiteljesedés olyan fokára jutni, amelyben akár sportol, akár  mást tesz, azt alkotó szabadságban teszi!

Ez a legfontosabb szabály. Ez a célunk  tulajdonképpen könyvünk valamennyi tanácsával, s ez az alapgondolat adta végső  soron könyvünk címét is: „AZ  ALKOTÓ ÁLOM". - Mit is akarunk ezzel mondani?


Először is azt, hogy a fenti latin  közmondás eredeti értelmében nem  állítás, sokkal inkább tanács, amely szerint az egészséges szellemnek  egészséges testben van a helye. Ha már tudjuk, hogy a legtöbb sportág  mesterfokú elsajátításának nélkülözhetetlen előfeltétele a „mentális erő" értelmében vett  szellemi-lelki harmónia. Mi ennek a mentális erőnek az eredete? Ha visszaemlékeznek előző fejtegetéseinkre,  minden bizonnyal feltűnt már önöknek, hogy az élsportolói teljesítményre mind a  gondolkodás, mind a formaadás, mind a cselekvés területei hatnak. Az alkotó  emberek azt állítják, hogy a tudományos vagy a művészi ötletek az önfeledtség állapotában jönnek,  illetve „repülnek be az ablakon", s a művészi formaadást is többnyire nem  a művész Én-je, hanem maga az eszme vezérli. Mintegy „magától" mozog a festői ecset, s  „magától" kezd játszani a hárfa. A zen-buddhisták ezt mindenesetre így fejezik ki. A nyíllövészet mesterfokán nem „én lövök", hanem a „nyíl lő".


Már fejezetünk elején hangsúlyoztuk, hogy  mint kritikai realisták, nem  tudunk a zen-iskola összes világszemléleti alapvetésével egyetérteni. Ami azonban a sport- vagy a  testgyakorlatokat illeti, valamint azok szoros kölcsönhatását az emberi szellem és lélek kiteljesedésére, tapasztalataink alapján tökéletesen  egyet kell értenünk a zenbuddhistákkal.
Azokat az élményeket, amelyeket a  sportolók mesterré válásuk során  leírnak, különösen a sporteszközzel, a mozdulattal való „összenövés" élményét a zen-buddhista  irodalom évszázadokkal ezelőtt leírta, s összekötötte azt az ember  szellemi-lelki fejlődésének gondolatával. Az Énünkhöz való megveszekedett ragaszkodást mi is ugyanúgy ítéljük meg, mint a zen-buddhisták.  Ez az alapállás testi-lelki fejlődésünk  legfőbb ellensége, mivel fokozottan én-központú világkép kiépítéséhez vezet. Mi is, mint a zen-buddhisták,  mind a testi, mind a szellemi gyakorlatokat (feltéve, hogy azokat  „helyesen" csináljuk) az alkotó,  teljes személyiséghez vezető külső és belső útnak tartjuk. E gondolatot már fejezetünk elején is  kiemeltük. A külső út a sport, ennek kapcsán újra és újra kiemeltük, hogy milyen  nagy jelentőséget tulajdonítunk  az én háttérbe-szorulásának. Szeretnénk néhány szót szólni a belső útról is -  amely a tudatos álmon át vezet. Ha visszalapoznak, észre fogják venni, hogy e  belső út kezdetét ott írtuk le, ahol az álomfigurákkal való bánásmódról  beszéltünk. Ha a tudatos álomban  szervező, békülékeny magatartást tanúsítunk az eredetileg fenyegető álomalakokkal szemben, a mögöttük  lévő belső lelki- és lelki-társadalmi  összeütközéseket is szervezettebb módon fogjuk tudni megoldani. Az  összeütközések megoldásának ugyanis az a lényege, hogy az Én visszalépjen aránytalan igényeitől, s  csak a tényeknek és a  társadalmi helyzetnek megfelelő jogos követelésekkel lépjen fel.

« Utoljára szerkesztve: 2010. Július 28. - 15:41:06 írta A Nikk »

A Nikk

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Re:Tudatos álmodás és buddhizmus
« Válasz #2 Dátum: 2010. Szeptember 15. - 22:40:10 »
Overview of the Development of Lucid Dream
Research in Germany

by Paul Tholey

[Lecture at the VI. International Conference of the Association for the Study of Dreams in London 1989.
First published in: Lucidity Letter, 8(2) (1989), pp 1-30]

(2nd part)

Phenomenological Research on Non-ordinary Ego Experiences

For   the description of non-ordinary ego-experiences we want to explain   certain terms in more detail (including some already used), and also   introduce some new ones. This is not easy given that many   phenomenological distinctions which are made in the German language can   only be expressed in English by employing metaphorical language. In   addition, many terms are used ambiguously. We are thinking of such terms   as "ego," "I," "me," "self," etc. Sometimes the term "ego" indicates a   part or sub-system of the personality (e.g., in psychoanalysis). By   contrast, we attach a phenomenological meaning to this term, as well as   the others, in the fol-lowing discussion.

By the expression   "total self" we mean the phenomenal "body-soul unity" of a subject which   comprehends the subject's phenomenal body (in our terminology, the   body-ego) as well as mental facts (in a narrow sense) - above all, the   emotions and motivations of the subject. These mental facts frequently   appear to be bound up with the body in a fuzzy way as a kind of vessel.   They can also transcend the phenomenal body. One thinks, for example, of   love or hate with their characteristic connections to other subjects.

There   is a particular point within the total-self, however, which is   sometimes referred to as the "center of the self," "center of   consciousness," or "center of the ego." "Ego in a narrower sense" or   something similar is also used (for details see KÖHLER, 1938, p. 188)   Due to the ambiguity of these terms, we prefer the expression   "ego-core," in accordance with the German term Ichkern. The ego-core is   less an extended part of the phenomenal field than it is a place or   point in the phenomenal world determined by its position and functions.   Let us first consider its position in the usual waking condition.

This   point can be localized surprisingly well during normal observing or   thinking. It is located within the phenomenal body, namely in the   frontal area of the phenomenal head, a short distance behind the bridge   of the nose. Many authors claim that the ego-core (or whatever term they   prefer for this concept) is located behind the eyes. But in the   phenomenological sense this is wrong because in the phenomenal world we   only see by means of a single eye. (The physiologist HERING had   described it as the "cyclopean eye" in the 19th century.) This eye   includes the frontal area of the phenomenal head. Based on that, we can   also say that the ego-core is located behind the center of this   cyclopean eye. To avoid any misunder-standing, it should be emphasized   that this localization of the ego-core only concerns the phenomenal   head, not the physical head of the physical organism. Beyond that, the   ego-core should not be confused with either a fictitious homunculus   (which suggests information), or with an idealistic epistemological   subject which creates or constructs the world. The terms "homunculus"   and "epistemological ego" are metaphysical concepts which have no   meaning from the standpoint of critical realism (see earlier   discussion). The ego-core can experience phenomenal objects and   participate in phenomenal events, above all through visual perception   (in a phenomenological sense), imagination, memory and thought. As a   rule, the ego-core is also the phenomenal origin of voluntary   activities, including voluntarily focusing attention.

We would   consider all experiences which deviate from the described phenomenal   facts to be non-ordinary ego-experiences. In such situations, for   example, the ego-core can change its position in the phenomenal body or   leave the phenomenal body (as with so-called OBEs), slip into other   phenomenal bodies, duplicate itself, or completely disappear. In   addition, the described functions of the ego-core can distribute   themselves in various places. There are so many non-usual   ego-experiences that we can only consider a few of them.

During   lucid dreaming, it is possible to experience one's own body or the   body-ego in extremely diverse ways - especially OBEs. We consider OBEs   to be experiences during which a second body or a disembodied ego (in   our terminology: the ego-point) leaves the first (experienced as   physical) phenomenal body (THOLEY, 1966c). The first body is frequently   experienced as immobile or rigid; the second as mobile. As a rule, the   ego-core is to be found in the latter. The second body can have the same   distinct contours as the first, or it can be a "cloud-like body." The   second body can also usually pass through solid objects, such as walls.   In rarer cases, the second body is tied to the first body by a kind of   cord. What we have described here is interpreted differently and   described in other terms by occultist literature. Table 2 shows a rough   outline of the differences between the anthroposophical concepts of   Rudolf STEINER and our own.

Naturally, there is also a physical   body or organism within the framework of critical realism. It is not,   however, immediately experienced. In occultist literature, the cord   between the first and second bodies is also called the silver cord; its   destruction is supposed to lead to death (see e.g., FOX 1962).

Research on OBEs

Most   investigations of non-ordinary ego-experiences refer to OBEs. We have   already pointed out the hypnagogic techniques which were used most of   the time in our OBE induction experiments. During lucid dreams we can   also induce OBEs in various ways (for details see THOLEY, 1989c).   Finally, we have also used various mirror techniques for the induction   of OBEs which are more or less patterned after magical practices. The   first successful investi-gation of a mirror technique in our research at   Frankfurt University was by STICH (1983; 1989). A method I developed   involving two mirrors has been described by NOSSACK (1989).

An   important goal of our phenomenal experiments was to determine whether   the same functional dependencies between phenomenal facts are to be   found in an OBE state and in a lucid dream state. Aside from the   beginning phase directly following the induction of these states of   consciousness, we found no substantial differences. In particular, we   tried to find techniques for prolonging, manipulating and ending OBEs   which were similar to those used during lucid dreams.

Interestingly   enough, it was possible for a subject (as an ego-point) to end a dream   by staring at his or her own (experienced as physical) phenomenal body   still lying in bed (STICH, 1983). This body would begin to become   blurred in the same way as a particular point in the dream scenery of a   lucid dream. With regard to manipulation, it was possible for practiced   subjects to arbitrarily give the second body (in occultist terminology:   the astral body) first a solid quality and then a subtle quality. In   this way, the subject could pass through walls at will. The so-called   astral body could also be transformed into animals and plants, among   other things. The so-called silver cord could be cut (without harmful   results), although this was a fairly rare event (see THOLEY, 1989c). All   of the findings of our phenomenological experiments (especially the   blurring of the seemingly physical body and the arbitrary transformation   processes of the second body) indicate that OBEs are merely a   particular form of lucid dreams, with the possible exception of OBEs   occurring during a waking state (e.g., during the practicing of certain   sports - see THOLEY, 1989c).

And now a final important   observation in this area, which was also described by SCHRIEVER (1935)   vis-à-vis lucid dreaming. If the ego-core is actually a pure point of   view from which one's own body can be observed, it is also true that   particular exer-tions and pain in this body can be felt as neutral   events without affecting the ego-core. Through practice, some people are   able to transfer this ability to a waking state in which the ego-core   is found in the phenomenal head, i.e., not outside the body. It might   even be possible for these people to be operated on without anaesthesia.

Entering the Body of Other Dream Characters with the Ego-core

The   previously mentioned mirror techniques can be used as a helpful   prelim-inary exercise for entering the body of another dream character   with the ego-core. In the hypnagogic state, however, one can use   imagined mirrors in order to enter one's own imagine in the mirror   (MULDOON & CARRINGTON, 1974; HILLMAN, 1985). In this state, the   "image-ego-point technique" for inducing lucid dreams (THOLEY, 1983a, p.   85) can also be used for entering the body of a dream character.

When   entering the body of a particular dream character with the ego-core, it   is advantageous to look directly at the dream character. The ego-core   is often very quickly transported along the line of sight towards and   into the body of the dream character. Naturally there are still several   phenomenological experiments to be carried out to clarify the   effectiveness of particular techniques for this process.

We would   like to illustrate this process with two examples. In the first, the   subject (an artist) used the above mentioned "image-ego-point technique"   for inducing a lucid dream in a hypnagogic state. Even though he had   never exper-ienced a lucid dream before, he had the following experience   the first night after being instructed in this technique:

    I   paid attention to visual phenomena while falling asleep. I got to the   point where I could see a complete scene even though I was still lying   in bed as a spectator, not as an actor. Several Indians were kind of   hanging out on the beach. Among them was a friendly boy whom I selected   in order to enter his body. I quickly succeeded in "riding on" my line   of sight to him. Immediately afterwards I started to see the beach   through the boy's eyes; I heard the ocean waves beating against the   shore through his ears; I moved with the boy's body. Shortly afterwards,   my ego left the boy's body, shot up and then floated above the beach. I   thought to myself: "It did not quite work out yet." Then my ego slipped   into the body lying in bed.

Another example is provided by a   student who had already had many experiences with the mentioned mirror   technique. His ego-core entered the bodies of several other dream   characters, but he became lucid only at the end of the dream:

      I am dreaming that I am married and have a daughter (neither of which   was actually true). First, I see the kid playing around and I am very   proud of her. Later on, I am lying in bed (person A = dreamer) with my   wife (person B). She tells me that we have to sepa-rate. I am stunned by   that. She leaves and my ego enters her (person B) at that moment. After   some time has passed, I (still person B) conclude that I (person A) am   not that bad a person after all and I (person B) decide to return to   myself (person A). I find myself (person A) in bed with a stranger, a   man (person C), and I (person B) get extremely mad and jealous. I   (person B) accuse myself (person A) of being a "queer son-of-a-bitch."   Then my ego slips out of person B and into person C, and now, being   person C, I explain to person B why it is all right this way and succeed   in convincing B of this. Finally, all three of us are lying in bed   making love. I leave all three of them at the moment I am no longer sure   which one of them I actually am and then discover that I am sleeping   because everything seems so dreamlike. Seeing that, I explain to them   (the three people) that I am dreaming and that they are all parts of   myself. They turn around, looking at me sheepishly and unbelievingly.   Wondering how I manage to talk even though my ego has no body at all, I   wake up.

The dreamer interpreted the dream as a psychological   conflict in which the ego-core took over the various sub-systems of his   personality. While this dream obviously symbolized an internal   psychological conflict, we also have examples of psychosocial conflicts   being clarified and resolved by entering the body of another dream   character (for a detailed example, see THOLEY, 1988b, pp. 283, 284).   Indeed, it is not always possible to make a strict distinction between   these two kinds of conflicts because of their closely interrelated   nature.

Dream Ego Duplication

The following   technique for duplicating the dream ego was developed by psychotherapist   Norbert SATTLER. He discovered that it is possible to not only pass   into another dream character over the line of sight, but that a person   can be transported to a different place entirely. The following example   from SATTLER explains how the dream ego can be duplicated at the same   time as this transporting takes place.

    Standing in front of a   high tower during a lucid dream, I clearly experienced the tower's   power. This gave rise to a desire to look down from it. I accomplished   this by gliding in desultory fashion to the top of the tower along my   line of sight. I then looked downwards and was overcome by a feeling of   dizziness. In a similar way as before, I changed my perspective several   times until I seemed to be standing on top of the tower and at its base   at the same time, while simultaneously looking upwards and downwards. In   this way, I experienced the power of the high tower and the dizziness   caused by the long vertical drop in one conflicting moment.

A   second method, which I developed, for dream ego duplication consisted in   cutting one's body into right and left halves (see also the following   discussion for the more general method of severing body parts). The two   halves can then complete themselves into two dream bodies with differing   points of view. As a rule, this method can only be applied successfully   by experienced lucid dreamers and the phenomena are generally of an   unstable nature. In this connection, it should be noted that the   dream-ego, according to CHANG (1963), can be "multiplied into millions   and billions to fill the entire cosmos" (our terminology: the total   dream world).

Movement of the Ego-core Within the Dream Body

The   above mentioned technique for dividing the dream body into two halves   is patterned after a more general technique developed by Norbert SATTLER   (see preceding section) for cutting through or cutting off various   parts of the dream body with a knife. With this method, pain can be felt   and resistance can be encountered if the subject has not learned to   transform the solid dream body into a subtle body. The ego-core also   becomes mobile by means of cuts made through the head and can be moved   arbitrarily within the uninjured dream body with further practice. In   this way, it can inspect the entire dream body and internal organs much   like the Guided Affective Imagery (GAI) technique described by LEUNER   (1978). This could ultimately be of great significance for the diagnosis   and treatment of psychosomatic illness.

Destruction of the Dream Ego

If   a subject not only severs various parts of the body, but also tries to   completely cut it up into pieces, burn it up or destroy it by other   means, then the dream body as well as the dream ego-core disappear. This   is similar to the techniques used by shamans (e.g., see KALWEIT, 1984)   who are considered by many researchers to be pioneers in consciousness   research. The vanishing of the ego-core can lead to different states of   consciousness. Relatedly, DITTRICH (1985) argues, on the basis of factor   analysis of numerous experiments, that there are only three main   dimensions (independently of pharmacological and psychological causes)   within the various forms of altered states of consciousness:

1. Oceanic self boundlessness;

2. Anxious ego dissolution; and

3. Visionary restructuring.

As   a rule, only hallucinatory events take place during a lucid dream.   Whether the vanishing of the ego is accompanied by peak experiences of   type 1, or unpleasant, fearful experiences of type 2 depends, above all,   on the subject's epistemological point of view and the emotional   attitude flowing from it. Otherwise, we see no decisive difference   between these forms of experience. Those of the first type were the only   ones encountered by our experienced lucid dreamers who carried out the   experiments without any anxiety or fear. They can sometimes be described   as cosmic experiences with a holographic structure in which the self   and the (phenomenal) cosmos form a single unit.

The Evolution of Consciousness

A   series of phenomenologically differentiated experiences can be   distinguished in which the opposition of the ego (or self) to the world   is eliminated. This is discussed in chapter 10, "The Evolving Soul," of   GACKENBACH and BOSVELDs Control Your Dreams (1989).

We are of the   opinion that such peak experiences, above all in the Indian culture and   subsequently in many western cultures, are too dependent on meditation   techniques and frequently lead to a passive condition marked by   withdrawal from the world. But similar states can also be reached while   physiologically awake. Numerous Japanese Zen Buddhists, whose outlook is   close to German Gestalt theory, are able to reach such states of   consciousness by means of the "outer way"; for example, through artistic   or physical exercises. Zen Buddhist philosophers (see IZUTSU, 1986, p.   35) also speak of a "supra-consciousness." In both Zen Buddhism and   Gestalt theory (which is itself supported by countless empirical   investigations), the vanishing of the ego (or at least its receding into   the background) is the most important prerequisite for unprejudiced   perception, productive thinking, free and creative action. Given,   however, that we adopt an egocentric attitude as part of growing up in   our western culture, the road to creative freedom is not easy. By   eliminating certain impediments in the form of psychological resistance   or defense mechanisms, lucid dreaming can provide a key to the   successful traversing of this road (for details see THOLEY, 1989c). It   is not possible to describe this road in more detail within the context   of this article; nor the many diverse applications which we have only   been able to touch upon.

In conclusion we would like to point out   that reaching creative freedom in perception, thinking, and artistic or   scientific activity, shares a similarity to "enlightening" or "waking   up" from the robot-like sleep of our day to day existence as described   by TART (1986). But we are also of the opinion that there is a lot of   investigative work remaining. We have merely made a single excursion   from which it is only possible to point out new research perspectives,   rather than report final conclusions.

A Nikk

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Re:Tudatos álmodás és buddhizmus
« Válasz #3 Dátum: 2010. Október 08. - 11:50:56 »
találtam egy érdekes anyagot, hátha vkit érdekelni fog:

1. 30-45 minutes of sitting vipassana. after this session the body and mind should be peaceful and relaxed.

2. continue with lying down meditation. focus on breathing (rising, falling), relaxation, impermanence.

3.   sooner or later you will sense big waves/vibrations (maybe even high   pitched ringing in your ears). notice them. label them as “flow”,   “expansion”, “contraction”. stay with it. surrender to it. until…

4.   WHAM! you’re in a dream state. (note: you might see a flash of light,   prior to the change in scenery). initially you might be disoriented or   get lost in the dream. but hopefully, the clarity of awareness from the   vipassana meditation (step 1), would spill over the dream state and make   you lucid.

5. once you’re lucid, you can either continue to   explore the dream world. have fun in it (i always fly), OR you can   continue with vipassana practice (i.e., noticing the phenomena in the   dream state).


bővebben itt:
http://www.c4chaos.com/2009/03/open-practice-vipassana-induced-lucid-dream-vild/

A Nikk

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Re:Tudatos álmodás és buddhizmus
« Válasz #4 Dátum: 2010. Október 10. - 15:53:31 »

kiroru

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Re:Tudatos álmodás és buddhizmus
« Válasz #5 Dátum: 2010. November 19. - 16:20:25 »
Szerintem nagyon jó, hogy a buddhistákat érdekli / és érdekelte a tudatos álmodás. Hiszen az egy nagyszerű dolog. :)

kiroru

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Re:Tudatos álmodás és buddhizmus
« Válasz #6 Dátum: 2011. Január 30. - 11:23:07 »
Mit gondoltok? Az álom valóság, vagy a valóság álom? :)

A Nikk

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Re:Tudatos álmodás és buddhizmus
« Válasz #7 Dátum: 2011. Január 30. - 18:14:06 »
Mit gondoltok? Az álom valóság, vagy a valóság álom? :)

a "mit gondolás" maga az álom.... a Mátrix

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Re:Tudatos álmodás és buddhizmus
« Válasz #8 Dátum: 2011. Március 13. - 18:18:20 »
« Utoljára szerkesztve: 2011. Március 13. - 18:23:18 írta roni »

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Re:Tudatos álmodás és buddhizmus
« Válasz #10 Dátum: 2012. Január 17. - 22:58:27 »
A Buddhával már mindent el lehet adni... :)

A Nikk

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Re:Tudatos álmodás és buddhizmus
« Válasz #11 Dátum: 2012. Január 30. - 06:45:15 »

hop.pala

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Re:Tudatos álmodás és buddhizmus
« Válasz #12 Dátum: 2012. Június 22. - 01:35:56 »
 A tudatos álmodáskapcsán azért érdemes emlitést tenni a tudat tiszta természetéről.Mikor elalszol és álomfázisba érnél megjelenik a tiszta fény tudatállapota.Ez egy olyan dolog amit ugy gondolj el hogy a gondolkodás előtti tudatállapot.Azért fontos ezt emliteni mert ez következik be halálkor is:megjelenik a tiszta fény ami a megvilágosodás lehetőségét nyujtja.
Ugyanakkor tudnod kell hogy az álmodás mint cél haszontalan a buddhizmus szempontjából,mert csak a sajáttudatot szélesiti ki,de ha ez a kitüzött cél mint gyakorlat nem vezet a megvilágosodáshoz.